Metamemory expectancy illusion and schema-consistent guessing in source monitoring

Schaper, Marie Luisa ; Kuhlmann, Beatrice G. ; Bayen, Ute J.

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Document Type: Article
Year of publication: 2019
The title of a journal, publication series: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Volume: 45
Issue number: 3
Page range: 470-496
Place of publication: Washington, DC
Publishing house: American Psychological Assoc.
ISSN: 0278-7393 , 1939-1285
Publication language: English
Institution: School of Social Sciences > Kognitive Psychologie (Seniorprofessur) (Erdfelder 2019-)
School of Social Sciences > Kognitive Psychologie mit Schwerp. Kognitives Altern (Kuhlmann 2015-)
Subject: 150 Psychology
Keywords (English): metacognition , schemas , multinomial modeling , source guessing , source monitoring
Abstract: Source monitoring involves attributing information to one of several sources. Schemas are known to influence source-monitoring processes, with enhanced memory for schematically unexpected sources (inconsistency effect) and biased schema-consistent source guessing. The authors investigated whether this guessing bias reflects a compensatory guessing strategy based on metacognitive awareness of the inconsistency effect, or reflects other strategies as proposed by the probability-matching account. To determine people’s awareness of the inconsistency effect, the authors investigated metamemory predictions in a source-monitoring task. In four experiments, participants studied object word items that were presented with one of two scene labels as sources. Items were either presented with their schematically expected source (e.g., kitchen—oven) or with their schematically unexpected source (e.g., kitchen—toothpaste). In Experiments 1 and 2, participants predicted their item memory and their source memory after each source–item presentation. In Experiment 1, people incorrectly predicted both their item memory and, even more so, their source memory to be better for expected than for unexpected source–item pairs. In Experiment 2, this effect replicated with different types of judgment probes. Crucially, item-wise memory predictions did not predict source guessing. In Experiment 3, metacognitive awareness of the inconsistency effect on source memory changed during the test phase. However, metamemory convictions never predicted source guessing. In Experiment 4, the authors manipulated participants’ convictions concerning the impact of schematic expectations on source memory. These convictions also did not predict source guessing. Thus, the results show that schema-consistent source guessing does not reflect a compensatory strategy.

Dieser Eintrag ist Teil der Universitätsbibliographie.

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